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学术与应用

狂风暴雨之后是什么?--猪病的现状、近期趋势分析与应对策略

【来源】本文为南方农村报《养殖宝典》编辑部约稿,并刊登于2007年1 【作者】梁皓仪 【日期】2007-11-01 【关键词】福源康,保健药物,饲料添加

CHUTUWENWUXIANSHI:ZHONGGUORENYUZHUZHISHAOYIFASHENGLEBAQIANNIANYISHANGDEGUANXI。JINGUANWUFAXIANGDUZHECHENGFENGYANJINDELISHIKAOZHENGYIJU,DANXIANGXINJIHUWURENGANFOUREN,ZAI07NIANDEZHUNIAN,ZHUYUZHONGGUORENDEGUANXIJUEDUICHUANGZAOLEWUSHUDELISHIZHIZUI,SHANGZHIGUOJIALINGDAOREN,XIAZHIPINGMINBAIXINGDOUSHENQIETIHUIDAO:ZHONGGUORENQISHIYUZHUMIBUKEFEN。YINCI,ZUOWEIYEJIEZHUANYERENSHI,FUZERENDIMIANDUIGUANHUSHEHUIANDINGJUMIANDEMINSHENGWENTI,KEGUAN、YANSUDITAOLUNYUYANGZHUXIANGGUANDEJISHUWENTISHIGESHENSHENGERBUKETUIXIEDEZEREN。

JINQIUYILAI,NANFANGSHUSHENGDEZHUBINGBIAOMIANSHANGJIRENYIZHONGLVEQUPINGHUANDEGANJUE,YIFENGMEICHUANBODEYIBINGCHENGXIANLVEYOUSHOULIANDESHITOU。RANER,SHIJIQINGKUANGRUHE?ZHENZHENGYUANYINZAINA?KUANGFENGBAOYUZHIHOUSHICAIHONGHAISHIHUIMAI?BIZHECONGBEIZHIELUOSIYUANDONGDIQU,NANDAOTAIPINGYANGDEFEILVBINQUNDAODEZHUSHEJINONGYEZHANLANHUISHANGDEXIEZHENJINGTOU(YOUXINGQUZHEKESUOGUANSHANG),JIASHANGYEJIEZHONGDUOTONGRENDEGEZHONGGUANDIANHEDAJIAYIQITANTAOXIANGGUANWENTIYUCHULU。

一、猪病个案呈下降趋势与原因分析

WEIJINSHENQIJIAN,ZHIBIZHIQIANBIZHEXIANYUGEDIYUESHIGESHENGFENDETONGXINGPENGYOUJIAOHUANJINQIBENRENWEIQUGUODEDIFANG,ZONGHEGEDIQINGKUANG,KEGUANDISHUO,ZUIJINYIDUANSHIJIAN,QUANGUOXIANGDANGDUODIQUDEJIXINGCHUANRANZHUBINGGEANDEQUECHENGDAFUDUXIAJIANGQUSHI,DANBINGBUDENGYUZHUBINGSHOUDAOYOUXIAODEKONGZHI,ZHUBINGDEFABINGXINGSHIFASHENGJIAODABIANHUA。CIWAI,RUQIUYILAIYEYOUMOUXIEDIQUZHUBINGBIQIANDUANSHIJIANGENGWEIYANZHONG。JIUQUANGUOFANWEILAISHUO,JINDONGMINGCHUN,KESHANGSHIJIANKANGSHANGPINZHUZONGLIANGRENGCHENGXIAJIANGQUSHI,ZHISHIJISHUYIDAJIANERZHIJIANGFUDIJIANERYI。

ZONGGUANQUANGUOGEDIDEQINGKUANG,JIXINGCHUANRANXINGZHUBINGGEANJIANSHAODEYUANYINXIANGDANGFUZA,DANZHUYAOYUANYINRUXIA:

1、易感动物数量大幅减少

ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,JINGGUOJINLIANGNIANKUANGFENGBAOYUDEXILI,XIANGDANGDABUFENSIYANGGUANLIQIANGUIFANDEZHUCHANG(BINGFEIDOUSHISANYANGHU)YIJINGGUANBIHUOCUNLANLIANGDAJIAN,CULVEGUSUAN,YIGANDONGWUSHULIANGYINBUTONGDIQUERYI,YI05NIANDICUNLANLIANGWEICANZHAOJIANSHAO30-60%BUDENG,SANTIANQIANBIZHEZAIHUNANMOUXIAN(SHI)CANJIAYANTAOHUI,DANGDIZHUNONGSUSHUO,FABINGQIANDANGDIMEITIANYOU8TAIZHUANYEYUNZHUCHE(MEICHECILA160-200TOUDAZHUBUDENG)LASHANGPINZHUDAOGUANGDONGSHICHANG,ERXIANZAIGONGYINGBENDIJIFUJINDIQUDOUBUGOU,YIHENZHANGYIDUANSHIJIANMEIYOUCHEFADAOGUANGDONGLE,YOUHAOJIGEXIANGZHENJIHUZHAOBUDAOCUNLANZHU。YOUXIEPENGYOUJIEDAOBIZHEZIXUNDIANHUASHIHAIYIFANWENDEYUQISHUO:ZHUDOUMEIYOULE,NALAIDEBING?WOGUOFUYUANLIAOKUO,GEDIJIANJINGJISHILICHAJUXUANSHU,RANERJINLAISHANGSHIHUOZHUJIAGERIJIANQUTONG,ZUYISHUOMINGQIANFADADIQUZHUYUANQUEKOUBIJINGJIFADADIQUGENGDA。

YINCI,ZONGHEGEDIQINGKUANG,KEYIDECHUJIAOWEIMINGQUEDEJIELUN,YIGANDONGWUDAFUJIANSHAOSHIZHUBINGGEANJIANSHAODEZHUYAOYUANYIN。

2、“蓝耳病”弱毒疫苗受到理性的抵制

RUBIZHEGUOWANGZAIDUOZHONGCHANGHEFANFUQIANGDIAO,GUOQUJINLIANGNIANDESHIJIANLISUNSHIDEJUEZHUSHU,60%YISHANGGUIGONGYUJIEZHONG“LANERBING”RUODUYIMIAO。JINNIANBAYUECHU,BENRENSHOUYAODAOFEILVBINLVSONGDAOYUDANGDIZHUNONGTANTAOZHUBINGKONGZHIWENTI,TANDAO“LANERBING”YIMIAOSHI,YIWEILAOBANCHUSHIMINGPIAN,GAOZHITAZUOWEIDEGUOMOUGONGSI“LANERBING”YIMIAOJINGXIAOSHANG,JIANYIZHUNONGBUYAOJIEZHONG“LANERBING”YIMIAO,YINGAIYIMIAOCENGRANGTADEHENDUOZHUNONGPENGYOUSUNSHICANZHONG(Caused them lose a lot);BUGUOZHUOSHANGLINGYIWEIYOUERQIANTOUMUZHUDELAOBANQUERENWEI,GAIYIMIAODUITAYOUBANGZHU,DUONIANLAITAYIZHIANCHENGXUJIEZHONGGAIYIMIAO,SHIXIAOZHUSIWANGLVCONGSHIYONG“LANERMIAO”DETOUERNIANDE60-70%JIANGZHI19%ZUOYOU,BINGZHANGSHIJIANWEICHIZAIZHEIGESHUIPING。DANGSHIBIZHEJINGEDAOWUYANYIDUI。WUXUBIZHEGUODUOZHUISHU,JINNIAN6YUE23RIZAIZHONGGUOZHUYEDAHUISHANG,NONGYEBUSHOUYIJUJIAYOULINGJUZHANGZHENGZHONGXUANBU:JINGGUOSHOUYIJUYANGEANPAIDESHIYANBIAOMING,ZAIZHONGGUOZHAODAODEBAOKUOJINKOU、GUOCHANDE,HEFAHUOWEIFASHENGCHANDE15ZHONG“LANERBING”RUODUMIAO,DUI“GAOREBING”MEIYOUYIZHONGYOUXIAO。HAOWUYIWEN,JIAJUZHANGDAIBIAONONGYEBUXUANBUDEJIELUNFEICHANGJISHIDIHUANXINGLEMISHIFANGXIANGDEGUANGDAZHULAOBAN,RANGYEJIETONGRENZIJUELIXINGDIDIZHIGAILEIYIMIAODEFANLAN,DUIKONGZHIZHUBINGJIXUMANYANQIDAOFEICHANGGUANJIANDEZUOYONG。

3、病猪流动性减少

YOUYUFEIZIFANZIYANGZHUCHANGZAIZHEILIANGNIANDEFENGBAOZHONGSUNSHICANZHONG,JIAZHIGEDIJUNFASHENGLEISIDESUNSHIQINGKUANG,KUADIQUDEZHUMIAOJISHANGPINZHUZHANGTUFANYUNDEDAFUDUJIANSHAO,DADAJIANGDILEYIBINGCHUANBODEPINDU,DUIJIANSHAOBINGANFASHENGGONGXIANBUSHAO。

4、基础防疫工作受到重视

HAOWUYIWEN,WULUNXIANCHANGRENGRANBUDUANFASHENGGEZHONGGEYANGDEYISI“YIMIAOBING”GEAN,DANZHUWEN、WEIKUANGQUANDENGYIMIAOJIEZHONGSHOUDAOKONGQIANZHONGSHI,DUIJIANGDIDONGWUDUIXIANGYINGYIBINGDEYIGANXING、JIANSHAOFUHEBINGFA、JIFAGANRANQIDAOBUKEHUSHIDEZUOYONG。

5、以血浆蛋白粉为代表的同源动物性饲料已引起警示

SUIRANBENRENCENGZAISHINIANQIANYIYUYAN:XUEJIANGDANBAIFENPUJIZHIRIJIUSHITUIHUIZHONGGUOYANGZHUYEZHISHI。DANZAIZHUBINGKUANGFAZHIQIANZHENZHENGLIJIECIHUAHANYIDERENBUDUO。ZHIDEQINGXINGDESHISHIZHIJINRI,XIANGXINJIBENYUANLIDERENYIRIYIZENGDUO,HENDUORENYIMINGBAIBUYONGXUEJIANGDANBAIFENZHILEIDETONGYUANDONGWUXINGYUANLIAOCAIYOUKENENGBAZHUYANGHAO。DANYAOCHEDIJIEJUEWENTI,HAIYOUHENDUOSHENCENGCIDESHIQINGXUYAOCHULI。

6、疫病本身的“自限性”发挥作用

CONGHONGGUANSHENGTAIZHEXUEJIAODUFENXI,CHUANRANBINGBENSHENZAIYUNYUZHISHIYIJIANLILEQI“ZIXIAN”JIZHI,XINGCUNYIGANDONGWUDUIBINGYUANCHANSHENGBAOHUKANGTI,SHIDEBENSHENJIHOUDAIZAIYIDUANSHIJIANNEICHUYUFEIYIGANZHUANGTAI,DUIEZHIYIBINGJINYIBUMANYANFAHUIXIANGDANGZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

WULUNRUHE,CHUANRANXINGZHUBINGZAIDADUOSHUDIQUYISHOUDAO“EZHI”,ZHEISHIBUZHENGDESHISHI,YESHIYANGZHURENDEFUYIN。RANER,CONGSHOUDAO“EZHI”DAOSHOUDAO“YOUXIAOKONGZHI”RENGYOUYIDUANXIANGDANGMANZHANGDELUYAOZOU。CONGDATIANANLIFENXI,GEZHONGBUTONGZHENGZHUANGDEYIBINGCIQIBIFUDETAISHIRENGHUIWEICHIXIANGDANGZHANGDESHIJIAN。KUANGFENGBAOYUZHIHOUSHIFOUYIDINGJIANDAOCAIHONGQUEYINRENERYI。

二、近期猪病趋势分析

YENEIRENSHIDADUODOUSHIFENQINGCHU,DAFANDADEYIBINGLIUXINGZHIHOU,DONGWUQUNTIDEZHENGGEMIANYIFANGYUTIXISHOUDAOBUTONGCHENGDUDECHONGJI,JIBENSHANGDOUHUIBUDUANFANFUCHUXIANYIXIEJIFAXINGGANRAN,YOUQISHIYIXIEJICHUGONGZUOBUZHASHI,WEISHENGZHUANGKUANGJIAOCHADECHANGKENENGZAOSHOUDESUNSHIHUIGENGDA。YIBIZHEZHIJIAN,ZHUCHANGXIANSHIMIANLINHUOJIJIANGKENENGMIANDUIDEZUITUCHUWENTIYOU:

1、繁殖障碍日趋严重

A、后备母猪

CONGXIANCHANGQINGKUANGFENXI,WULUNSHIBENSHENJINGSHOUGUOQINRAODEHOUBEIMUZHU,HAISHICENGZAOBINGYUANQINRAODEMUZHUSHENGCHANDEHOUDAI,BAOKUOCENGJINGJIEZHONG“LANERBING”RUODUYIMIAO,DANQUANCHANGYIMIAOBINGDUGANRANWEIDADAOPINGHENGDEZHUQUN,DADUOSHUBIAOXIANCHU:YANJIANSHUIZHONG、LEIBANNONGHOU,YANJIEMOYAN(SUCHENG“HONGYANBING”),YOUDEZHUQUNSHENZHIKEJIANYANJIEMOWAIFAN;YOUXIEZHUZHIYOUXIANGDANGMINGXIANDEYISIYUANHUANBINGDUGANRANDAOZHIDEPIYAN,GUOLEFAQINGRILINGJITIZHONG,RENGWUFAQINGBIAOZHENG;YOUXIEHOUBEIMUZHUWEIPEIZHONGYICHUXIANZIGONGNEIMOYAN;YOUXIECHANGYIQIANLIEXIANSULEIYAOWUCHULI,JISHICHUXIANFAQINGBIAOZHENG,DANPEIZHONGHOURENGHUIZAIPEITAIZHECHUANGQIANHOU(PEIZHONGHOU5-7ZHOU)LIUCHAN;ZONGTIERYAN,YOUFANZHIZHANGAIDEHOUBEIMUZHUBUSHAOYUQUNTI20%,GEBIEYANZHONGDEZHUCHANGSHENZHIGAODA50%YISHANG。

B、经产母猪

JINGCHANMUZHUDUANNAIHOU(HANBUFENYINBINGBEIBITIQIANDUANNAI)BUFAQINGHUOFAQINGPEIZHONGHOUFANQING,ZIGONGNEIMOYANZHENGZHUANGJIAODUO,YOUDEFUPEI3GEQINGQIYISHANGRENGWEISHOUTAI,ZHIHAOTIQIANTAOTAI。ZAOSHOUXIANXINGBINGYUANGANRANHUOCUOWUJIEZHONGYIMIAOHOULIUCHANDEMUZHUCILEIQINGKUANGGENGWEIYANZHONG。

2、喘气病

YOUYUSHOUBINGDUGANRANHOUTIZHIXURUO,JIAZHIQIUDONGJIJIESHENEIWEN、SHIDUJITONGFENGTOUQITIAOJIANGAIBIAN,CHUANQIBINGHUIRIQUYANZHONG,CHANGGUIYAOWUJIHUWUXIAO。

3、猪副嗜血杆菌等细菌感染日趋频繁

BINGDUGANRAN(HANYINXINGGANRAN)HOUDEXIJUNXINGJIFAGANRANJIHUSHIGEGUILVXINGWENTI,CHANFANGHUOBAOYUSHEXIAOZHUGUANJIEZHONGZHANG、NONGZHONGXINGYANZHENG、GESHENGZHANGJIEDUANDEZHUFUSHIHUXI、POUJIANCHENGDIANXINGDEXIONGMOYAN、FUMOYANJIJIANGMOYANDENGZHUFUSHIXUEGANJUNGANRANZHENGZHUANGDEQINGKUANGHUIRIJIANYANZHONG,LIANQIUJUNGANRANTONGYANGPINFAN。YOUXIEZHUZHISHANGWURENGYOUCAISHIXINGWEI,XIAWUJIUYINDUOZHONGBINGYUANCHANSHENGDENEIDUSUERZHIJIXINGBAIXUE、WEIXUNHUANZHANGAIERZHOUSI。WULUNNAGEJIEDUANDEZHUDOUYOUKENENGFASHENGCILEIQINGKUANG。LINCHUANGSHOUYIYIBANZHIZHONGSHIDUIZHENGCHULI,DANWANGWANGTINGYAOHOUFANFUCHUXIANLEISIZHENGZHUANG。ZHIYAOBINGDUGANRANBUJIEJUE,XIJUNGANRANWENTIJIUHUIFANFUCHUXIAN。YONGYAOCHENGBENDAZENG,ZHUQUNJIANKANGZHUANGKUANGJISHENGCHANXINGNENGQUERIJIANEHUA,SIYANGXIAOYIDIXIA。

4、流行性腹泻(TGE)及传染性胃肠炎(PED

JINQIUMINGCHUNZHUDEXIAOHUADAOBINGDUGANRAN(TGEJIPED)HENKENENGMIANLINXIANGDANGYANZHONGDEYALI,ZAOCHENGJIAODASUNSHIJIANGBUKEBIMIAN。

5、“五号病”

ZHUQUNJINGLIDUOZHONGBINGDUJIXIJUNGANRANHOU,MIANYIXITONGGONGNENGGENGJIACUIRUO,DUIGEZHONGBINGYUANDEDIKANGLIGENGDI;JIAZHIZUIJINBANNIANLAI,YOUYUDUOSHUSILIAOTIANJIAJICHENGBENJUZENG,GENGYINDIXIEYIBINGKENENGDAOZHIXUQIUZENGJIA,ZHUQUNWEISHENGSUQUEFAZHENGZHUANGXIANGDANGPUBIAN,LIETI、FUTIZHENGZHUANGRIJIANZENGDUO。TINEIJITIWAILIANGDAOMENHUDETONGSHIKAIFANG,HUILING“WUHAOBING”BINGYUANRURUWURENZHIJING。CONGHONGGUANJIAODUDELUOJITUILIFENJIE,WEILAI6-8GEYUEDE“WUHAOBING”YALIKENENGSHIJINSHINIANLAIZUIDADE,05NIANZAIMOUXIEDIQUCHUXIANDEYIJIXINGXINJIYANZHISIWEITEZHENGDECHAOQIANGDUZHUKENENGHUIZAICIGUANGLIN。

三、健康高效养猪的应对策略

DUIYANGZHURENLAISHUO,YISHANGSUOTAOLUNDEWUDALEIYIBING,JISHIRENHEYIZHONGYIDANFUXIAN,JIHUDOUWURENHEYOUXIAODECHANGGUICUOSHIKEYIYOUXIAOJIEJUE,ZHONGDAJINGJISUNSHIJIANGBUKEBIMIAN。RUHEYINGDUIZHEIXIEQIANZAIDEWEIXIE?CHANGGUICUOSHIDAJIADOUHENSHUSHI,DANHENNANSHOUDAOLIXIANGXIAOGUO。RUDADUOSHUYENEIRENSHIGANTANNEIYANG,JINSHINIANLAI,YIMIAO、YAOWUYUEYONGYUEDUO,ZHUBINGQUEYUELAIYUEDUO,ZHUYUELAIYUENANYANG,YANGZHURENDELUSIHUYUEZOUYUEZHAI。BIZHEDUONIANLAIYIZHITANTAORUHERANGYANGZHUYEZOUCHUGUAIQUAN,TASHANGJIANKANGGAOXIAO,YUEZOUYUEKUANDEYANGZHUZHILU。BINGQIANGDIAOSHIYONGQUEYOUGONGXIAODEMIANYIDIAOJIEJI,DADAOZHONGGOUDONGWUFEITEYIXINGZHUDONGMIANYIGONGNENGDEMUDE,KENENGSHIZUIMINGZHIDEXUANZE。

YIYANGZHURENXIGUANDESIWEIFANGSHILAIMIAOSHU,ZHONGGOUDONGWUFEITEYIXINGZHUDONGMIANYIGONGNENGKEYIZUOWEI“BAOJIAN”FANGSHILAILIJIE,DANBIZHERENWEI,DUIDONGWUBAOJIANBIXUZUNXUNYIXIAJIBENYUANZE:

1、DONGWUQUNTIDABUDAOPINZHONG/PINXIDEQIANZAISHENGCHANXINGNENG,BIAOMINGFEITEYIXINGMIANYIGONGNENGDIXIA,JIANKANGZHUANGKUANGQIANJIA,CISHIJIUYINGJINXINGBAOJIANCHULI,YIQIFAHUIZUIJIADESHENGCHANQIANNENGHEJINGJIXIAOYI。

2、YINXIANSHIZHUQUNJIANKANGDEZUIDAZHANGAISHIYUANFAXINGBINGDUGANRAN,ERFEIXIJUNGANRAN,YINERBAOJIANDEMUBIAOYINGYIDUIFUBINGDUWEIZHU。YIHANDESHI,JIHUMEIYOUYIZHONGKEZHIJIESHAMIEBINGDUDEYAOWUKEYISHIYONG,YINCI,BAOJIANCUOSHISHANGCAIYONGHEZHONGCAILIAOBIXUSANSIERHOUXING。

3、保健工作应将问题解决在疫病的潜伏期,而不是发生了可见症状之后,否则,已于事无补。

CHENGRAN,CONGLILUNSHANGLIJIEZHONGGOUDONGWUFEITEYIXINGZHUDONGMIANYIGONGNENGSHIJIANBUNANDESHI,DANZAISHENGCHANSHIJIZHONGZHAODAOKEXINGDEFANGFAQUEFEIYISHI,YEJIETONGRENDUOJIAYONGXINBIRANYOUSUOSHOUHUO,YINSHEJISHANGYEWENTIBUBIANTAOLUNTAIDUO,JINJURUOGANDIANXINGANLIHEDAJIAFENXIANG:

典型案例1.广东湛江食出跃进猪场,最近一段时间发现全场各种接种疫苗(含猪瘟、伪狂犬、“五号病”)抗体水平显著提高,猪群表观健康状况及生产性能亦明显改善,期间只有两种措施可能起作用:一是接种某“蓝耳病”弱毒疫苗;二是使用了福源康。然而众所周知,“蓝耳病”弱毒苗没有可能提高各种疫苗的抗体水平。

典型案例2.江西上高县汇银农牧公司种猪场06年11月购买400头长白、大白及杜洛克原种后备母猪,购回后全程使用福源康,8月龄(140公斤)配种,仅有4头无法受孕,396胎初产仔猪平均活仔数10.2头/胎,初生仔猪平均窝重13公斤以上;产房无一黄白痢,25天龄断奶均重8.5公斤以上/头,母猪断奶后3-5天全部发情,配种后无一返情。

典型案例3.广东高要市惠华种猪场(300头母猪)自06年9月起连续使用福源康至今,猪群健康显著提高(原生产性能已相当不错),全场母猪产活仔数增加1.1头/胎,产房仔猪除了极个别被压死外,几乎没有死亡,保育舍成活率98%以上,生长猪成活率99%以上。

LEISIANLIBUSHENGMEIJU,YOUCIKEJIAN,JISHIZAIKUANGFENGBAOYUZHISHI,YIYOUJIANDAOCAIHONGZHIREN,ZHIYAOJISHIDIAOZHENGSIWEI,CAIQUDEDANGCUOSHI,YANGZHUZHILUHUIYUEZOUYUEKUANGUANG。

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