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学术与应用

“发酵床”养猪热下的冷思考

【来源】本文刊登在《养猪》杂志2009年第4期 【作者】梁皓仪 【日期】2009-08-03 【关键词】福源康,保健药物,饲料添加

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一、猪场排污内容、形式与途径

ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,YANGZHUCHANGPAICHUDEFENNIAOKECUFENWEIYOUJIWUYUWUJIWULIANGDALEI,YIHUAXUEYUANSUXIFENZEYITAN、

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YOUCIKEJIAN,YIYANGEDEKEXUEDINGYIHEKEGUANDEHUANBAOJIAODUFENXI,“FAJIAOCHUANG”DEYINGYONGBINGFEI“LINGPAIFANG” DECUOSHI,ZHIBUGUOSHIZHUCHANGPAIWUDEXINGSHIYUTUJINGFASHENGLEZHUANYI、SHIJIANYUKONGJIANZHONGZUOANPAIERYI,ZONGDEPAIFANGNEIRONGBINGMEIYOUSHIZHIXINGDEGAIBIAN,JUYOUGUANZHUANJIACULVEGUJI,DONGWUPAIXIEWUZHONGDEGANWUZHIZHISHAO90%YISHANGRENGRANZHUCUNZAIDIANLIAOZHONG,HUANJINGZAIHEBINGMEIYOUYIN“FAJIAOCHUANG”DEYINGYONGERJIANGDIDUOSHAO。YINCI,JINGUAN“FAJIAOCHUANG”YANGZHUGONGYIZAIJIANSHAOSHUITIKESHIWURANFANGMIANYOUXIANZHUXIAOGUO,DANYU“LINGPAIFANG”GAINIANRENGYOUBENZHIQUBIE。

二、饲养密度与排泄物承载能力

由于猪群的排泄物全部汇集在铺设厚垫料的“发酵床”上,有效单位面积的饲养密度与排泄物的承载能力成正相关。以每头猪在“发酵床”上增重100公斤为例,饲料转换率为2.6,饲料的干物质消化率为50%,那么每头猪一个生长周期的干物质排泄量约130公斤,单位面积每年养三批猪计,一头猪位的干物质排泄量约400公斤,除了约10%的有机物质被垫料中的各种微生物利用并转化为多种成分的气体及热量散发到空气中外,每头猪位每年约产生350公斤干物质的排泄物,如果按推广企业所宣称的每批垫料可连续用五年,则每头猪位共约产生1750公斤干物质的排泄物,若以含水量30%计,一头猪位需要多少面积或体积才能使这2500公斤货真价实的污物与合适比例的垫料混合后仍能让生活于此的猪群保持健康并达到期望值的生产性能?这可能是“发酵床”设计者们未必思考过的初级问题。

三、猪群健康与饲养效益

JINGUAN“FAJIAOCHUANG”GONGYITUIGUANGZHEFANFUQIANGDIAODIANLIAOZHONGDEYOUYIWEISHENGWUDEDALIANGFANZHIKEYIYOUXIAOSHAMIEBINGYUANWEISHENGWU,SHIZHUQUNBAOCHILIANGHAODEJIANKANGZHUANGTAI。RANERGAIGONGYITUIGUANGDUONIAN,CHULEDALIANGGANGUANMIAOSHUXINGCAILIAOWAI,SIHUCONGWEIJIANYOUYUZHUSHENEIXIANGGUANWEISHENGWUXIAOZHANGQINGKUANGYOUGUANDEFUHEKEXUEYIJUDEWENXIANZAIZHENGGUIXUESHUKANWUFABIAO,YEXIANJIANBUTONGSIYANGGONGYISUOYANGZHUQUNDEYIXILIEZHANGQIDESHENGCHANXINGNENGBIAOXIANDEDUIBISHIYANBAOGAO。QIAQIAXIANGFAN,ZAIZHEIJINIANSHIJIANLI,BIZHESUOJIAN“FAJIAOCHUANG”ZHUSHENEIDEZHUQUNJUEDADUOSHUWUFAYUJIBENJIANKANGHUADENGHAO,DADUOSHUZHUQUNDEHUXIDAOBINGZHENGZHUANGBIAOXIANYANZHONG,LEIBANNONGHOU、YANJIEMOYAN(SUCHENGHONGYANBING)、PIYAN(YISIYUANHUANBINGDUGANRANZHENGZHUANG)DENGYISIBINGDUGANRANZHENGZHUANGXIANGDANGPUBIAN;ZHUQUNZHENGQIDUCHA、SILIAOCAISHILIANGPIANDI、SHENGZHANGSUDUHUANMAN、DADAOSHANGSHITIZHONGDESIYANGRILINGYANZHANG,SILIAOZHUANHUANLVDIDENGQINGKUANGXIANGDANGTUCHU。ZAIBIZHESUOZUOXIANCHANGKAOCHAGUODECILEIZHUQUN,CULVETONGJI,ZAIXIANGTONGDESIYANGTIAOJIANXIA,JISHIMEIYOUDADEJIANKANGWENTI,YANGDAOXIANGTONGSHANGSHITIZHONG(RU115GONGJIN),“FAJIAOCHUANG”SIYANGDEZHUQUNYINLENGREJIJIEBUTONG,YAODUOYANG10-20TIANBUDENG,YEJIUSHISHUOYANGZAI“FAJIAOCHUANG”DESHANGPINZHUMEITOUSHOUYIZHISHAOHUIJIANSHAO60-120YUANZUOYOU,TONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIAYANREJIJIEDESUNSHIHUIGENGDA。

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四、地区气候、季节与不同生长阶段猪群管理要求

多年前“发酵床”自福建省推广始,已在全国大多数省份争先恐后地作为一种环保措施受到政府部门的关注与政策支持,多以轰轰烈烈开场,遮遮掩掩结束。笔者三年前曾到闽南某大型猪场(3000头存栏母猪)作实地考察,面对空置很长时间的“发酵床”猪舍,猪场老板自嘲“自己是一个很好学的人,只是学费交得太多了” ;两年前笔者在中原某省面对满腔热情推广“发酵床”的朋友说了几句婉转的提醒语,一年后,该朋友深有体会地说:“发酵床”只能用在保育阶段的小猪。至于华北地区的山东和东北的辽宁,类似所谓“成功与失败都有”的结果比比皆是。综合分析各地成败案例,笔者认为,在短时间内“感觉成功”的案例无论在什么省份多发生在非炎热季节,或处保育阶段的小猪,其“成功”的主因似只与厚垫料的辅助保温有关。当舍内气温大于30℃时,基本上见不到较大体重的生长猪在垫料上的活动,躺在猪舍边的水泥地面上纳凉似乎是猪群最惬意的享受,而此时的厚垫料则成为热应激源之一。因此养猪业主应该采用“发酵床”的厚垫料来保温,还是用其它更有效、可控程度更高、成本更低的方法来达到给猪群合理保温的目的是个值得理性思考的问题。换言之,幼龄猪群或寒冷季节各种猪群的保温需要,与“零排放”的“发酵床”养猪工艺并无任何必然的联系,如果“发酵床”只因其在非炎热季节发挥辅助保温功效,而在炎热季节则成为热应激源的话,是否还有值得推广的价值?

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五、长期使用与短期效果

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六、有益微生物与肉质改善

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七、动物行为特征、“堕性文化”与“懒汉思维”水乳相融

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八、畜牧业可持续发展、国内外政策与标准

解读国家的“节能减排”政策,“节能减排”并非绝对的“不用不排”,而是倡导“可持续发展下的少用少排,主张少用传统的石油化石类能源,多采用可再生能源”。从联合国气候变化部门公布的数据来看,全球有超过13.5%的温室气体来自农牧业生产,而且主要成分为优秀的新能源物质—甲烷(沼气)。《中国新能源和可再生能源发展优先项目》就把沼气这一项目作为重点。国家《2000-2015年新能源和可再生能源发展规划要点》就提出沼气利用在我国符合具有可持续发展的方向。“发酵床”的使用虽然表面上短期内减轻了部分可视污染物质,但这种舍本求末的方法既不如通过采取营养配方优化、饲料加工工艺改良及有效的生物酶系的应用等手段来改善饲料转化率降低排泄物污染成本划算,也不如采取先清干粪后冲水的方法简单,而且“发酵床”将甲烷等新能源物质在未加利用的前提下直接向大气中排放,这是与国家的“节能减排”政策的误解和对中国新能源发展规划政策是相悖的。通过沼气设备收集沼气,利用沼气发电供热,既能同时降低大气、地下水的污染程度,又能充分新能源再生利用,更关键的是在清洁发展机制(CDM)的国际政策下获得具有法律保障的减排量的不菲收入。

九、结语

养猪的排污与环保是个严峻的命题,设身处地为猪考虑、为周围环境考虑、为人类健康考虑是每位从业人员必须严肃面对的问题。然而,关乎到养猪工艺重大变革的“发酵床”养猪法与其说是环保措施,倒不如说是养猪工艺的系统工程更为准确。以猪为主体的工程变革如果没有首先从养好猪的角度出发去研究问题、解决问题,没有真正从事养猪多学科研究的复合型专家队伍去进行多系统的全方位的长期研究与生产实践检验,要达到操作者预期的目的与效果可能是件不太容易的事情。更何况,在养猪业内,养好猪的定义与标准至今依然存在各自释义的阶段,对“发酵床”养猪成功与失败的评估就更多了许多不确定因素。此外,对养猪工艺改革充满激情的业内同仁,如能借鉴环保压力居欧洲之首、养猪技术亦全球领先的荷兰,在九十年代初对“发酵床”养猪工艺的探索成败,可望会少走弯路,减少更大代价的付出。至于垫料来源与使用成本等非技术性问题相信实际操作者会有更具体的判断。笔者对该项目若干不成熟乃至粗浅的疑虑与思考奉与同仁磋商,以祈业界同仁共同努力,在养猪工艺上作更多有益的探讨,在减少污染的同时,又达到“多卖猪、早卖猪、卖好猪”的养猪目标。

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